WATER PLANET SCIENCE NOTES
- Sun - star, average star (only star in our solar system), center of the solar system, made of hydrogen and helium, (extra info: sun’s mass is 99.8% of solar system, formed 5 billion years ago, 109x the diameter of earth). Another name for the sun is Sol.
- Terrestrial Planets - made of rock, smaller than the gas giants, between the sun and the astroid belt. (Examples - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars)
- Asteroid Belt- asteroids made of rock and iron, between the terrestrial planets and the gas giants. Fun Fact: they can have moons.
- Gas Giants - made of gas, bigger than Terrestrial planets (Examples: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune), they are between the Astroid Belt and the Kuiper Belt Fun fact: all planets have moons and some have rings
- Kuiper Belt - Comets (made of ice, traces of rock, and gas) can have “tails”, Pluto and other dwarf planets. It is located beyond the Gas Giants.
- Satellite - is man made or natural object that orbits something. Example is a moon.
- Earth travels around the sun in a predictable path - it’s orbit
- Isaac Newton’s law of motion: Moving objects travel at a constant speed in a straight line and change speed and/or direction when a force pushes or pulls it.
- Earth would travel in a straight line (it has a speed and path of it’s own, called inertia), but it is acted on by a force - the GRAVITATIONAL PULL of the sun, which pulls it into an orbit around the sun.
- Demonstration: ball attached to a string. Ball = planet; hand = sun; string= gravitational pull; path= orbit
- Satellites are natural or man-made objects that orbit another object. Example: Moon, satellite cameras, astroids, comets, etc.
Three general rules:
1) the warmer the temperature, the faster it evaporates
2) Evaporation can happen anywhere even without light and heat.
3) The warmer the air, the more water vapor (moisture) it can hold.
1) Wet Paper Towels - water from paper towel in the open cup evaporated into the atmosphere.
2) Evaporation Locations - Evaporation happens everywhere (even in the deep dark closet!), but more heat and light, and air circulation (energy), and surface area lead to more evaporation.
3) Surface Area: The more surface area (the top layer of water exposed to the air) the more evaporation.
-Warm air can hold more water vapor than cold air.
Condensation - the change from water vapor (gas form) to a liquid .
Inside: Bathroom mirror after a shower or /cup of ice water in the classroom - air is filled with water vapor. The vapor condenses on the mirror/glass (turns from gas to liquid) because it is a cold, flat surface.
Outside: Clouds - starts with dust particles in the air. Water vapor gets cold and changes to liquid (called condensation) and will attach to a dust particle and others will follow.
Examples of condensation: Clouds, fog , dew (liquid condensation), Frost (frozen condensation)
- Energy Transfer - energy from the sun is absorbed by water and soil, the energy transfers and the earth materials heat up.
- Uneven heating of the Earth’s surface causes wind. The hot air over the land heats up and rises, the cold air over the sea rushes in to replace it. This is wind.
- Heat Sink - water is a heat sink because it can absorb 5 x more energy from the sun before it heats up.
A convection current is a circle of water (or air). Convection currents cause wind at a beach.
Explanation of Convection Current video: hot Red water weighs less than cold water, so the red hot water rose to the top. The cold blue water weighs more so it sank to the bottom. Now, red hot water is cooling off, it sinks, and the blue water is heating up, and rises.
What is the water cycle?
- The water cycle is the global recycling of water on earth. Water heats up and is evaporated into the atmosphere, which means it changes from a liquid to a gas. It cools and condenses, turning back into a liquid, which is called condensation. It then precipitates (rain, snow, sleet, hail) back down to earth. This cycle repeats indefinitely (happens over and over).
- 71% of earth is covered by water.
- Ninety-seven percent of Earth’s water is salt water in the oceans. Only 3% of Earth’s water is fresh water. 2% of fresh water is frozen in glaciers.
- Fresh water is found: glaciers, groundwater, lakes, soil, atmosphere, rivers.